Facial trauma, also called maxillofacial trauma, is any physical trauma to the face.
- Automobile accidents
- Personal accidents
- Assaults and fights
Injuries of the face may involve
- Soft Tissues
- Bones or
Signs and symptoms
- Bleeding from ear & / or nose
- Loss of function
- Changes in the shape disfigurement & of facial structures
- Injuries to the eye, nose, ear or any facial structure.
- Airway maintenance
- Control bleeding
- Treat associated injuries of head, chest, neck, abdomen, cervical spine, pelvis & limbs
- Wound debridement, bandaging and suturing of open wounds, administration of ice, antibiotics, and painkillers
- Treatment of maxillofacial injury
Soft tissue injury
- Facial lacerations
- Burns and cold injuries
- Salivary gland and duct injury
- Nerve injury (eg Facial nerve injury)
Hard tissue (bone) injury or Facial fractures :
Fractures of the face can be classified as – Fractures involving the upper third, middle third or lower third of the face.
Investigations – After proper examination of the patient, certain investigations might be needed like X-Rays, CT scans or MRI, blood investigations, etc.
For injuries of the soft tissues of the face, proper debridement & suturing is needed most of the time. The injuries are treated in a way that they should be aesthetically pleasing; also taking care to prevent injury to important surrounding structures.
For injuries of the hard tissues or the bones of the face, it depends on many factors like the area of the fracture, age & general condition of the patient.
Treatment can vary from conservative to surgical management. Surgical management involves the placement of tiny plates & screws. Placement of screws & plates allows the patient to lead a normal life faster. The jaws are at times wired together for proper stabilization of the fractures. The patient follows up has to be done regularly. The treatment should be done in a way that the incisions (access made to reach the fractured site) should be aesthetically pleasing once it heals & the scar is hidden.